By Bradley Ladewig, Benjamin Asquith
This ebook examines 5 equipment used for focus administration, particularly; disposal to floor water, disposal to sewerage, deep good injection, land purposes and evaporation ponds. particularly, the ebook makes a speciality of the layout, siting, price, and environmental affects of those equipment. whereas those tools are commonly practiced in quite a few settings already, there are various barriers that limit using definite disposal ideas specifically locations.
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Additional info for Desalination Concentrate Management
1 Concentrate Transport Concentrate must be transported from the desalination plant to the site of disposal, typically done via above or underground pipework. Tunneling and the installation of underground pipework is more costly than aboveground pipework, however this can be necessary when the outfall is located underwater, or when the plant is located some distance from the discharge point. The pipes used to transport concentrate should be resistant to corrosion. 2 Design 23 cathodic protection, or using plastic instead of steel (Bergman 2007).
Gamma radiation is measured along the borehole to determine the rock and sediment formations Records and profiles the rock formations surrounding the well The tubing annulus is filled with water to ensure its integrity and to check for leaks Testing prior to concentrate injection to determine the flow rate and pressure at which the concentrate can be injected Tracer fluid movements are measured to produce a radioactive-tracer log. This shows the flow of fluid in the casing, tubing and the annulus, and helps to estimate flow rates, leaks, and other points of exit or entry for fluid into the borehole This is a measurement of the temperature gradient throughout the well Cameras are lowered down the well, which allows for a visual inspection of the well.
This is particularly due to dredging, trenching and tunneling, which can be three to four times more expensive underwater than on land (Mickley 2006). The cost of these civil works are approximately 3% of the total construction cost for a seawater reverse osmosis plant (Sommariva 2010). The cost of monitoring will vary based on the environmental sensitivity of the discharge area (Schliephake et al. 2005). The overall cost of disposal may be reduced through the simultaneous discharge of multiple effluent streams from different sites.
Desalination Concentrate Management by Bradley Ladewig, Benjamin Asquith