By Andrew Gettelman, Richard B. Rood
This booklet demystifies the types we use to simulate current and destiny climates, permitting readers to higher know the way to take advantage of weather version effects. which will are expecting the long run trajectory of the Earth’s weather, climate-system simulation types are priceless. whilst and the way can we belief weather version predictions? The publication deals a framework for answering this question. It offers readers with a uncomplicated primer on weather and weather swap, and gives non-technical reasons for a way weather types are built, why they're doubtful, and what point of self belief we must always position in them. It provides present effects and the foremost uncertainties bearing on them. Uncertainty isn't really a weak point yet figuring out uncertainty is a energy and a key a part of utilizing any version, together with weather types. Case reports of the way weather version output has been used and the way it would be utilized in the longer term are supplied. the final word target of this e-book is to advertise a greater knowing of the constitution and uncertainties of weather types between clients, together with scientists, engineers and policymakers.
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Extra resources for Demystifying Climate Models: A Users Guide to Earth System Models
Solar energy comes in; the atmosphere, clouds and the earth absorb some and reflect some. The technical term for the ratio of reflected over total energy is albedo. White/light surfaces reflect a lot and have a high albedo: snow, ice, bright sand. Black/dark surfaces absorb a lot and have a low albedo: dark green trees, the ocean, asphalt. This is why a black car is hotter than a white car or asphalt is hotter than concrete in the sun. The energy absorbed warms the object (clouds, atmosphere, surface of the earth/ice/ocean) and it ‘re-emits’, but now at longer wavelengths and lower energy since the temperature of the surface is much lower than the sun.
The basic picture of the flows of energy in the atmosphere is illustrated in Fig. 2. The arrows represent approximate sizes of the energy flows4 in the energy budget. Solar energy comes in; the atmosphere, clouds and the earth absorb some and reflect some. The technical term for the ratio of reflected over total energy is albedo. White/light surfaces reflect a lot and have a high albedo: snow, ice, bright sand. Black/dark surfaces absorb a lot and have a low albedo: dark green trees, the ocean, asphalt.
In the atmosphere they are greenhouse gases. Water is important for life and also as a mechanism for moving heat from where it evaporates (taking up the heat to evaporate water) and releasing it on condensation. Carbon is stored in soils and rocks, and dissolved as a gas in the ocean. We will learn more about the carbon cycle in Chap. 7. One of the reasons the climate system is complex, and comprehensive models are necessary, is because these greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and water vapor) are critical for understanding the energy budget, but they also flow through the whole climate system.
Demystifying Climate Models: A Users Guide to Earth System Models by Andrew Gettelman, Richard B. Rood