By Man Leung Wong
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Additional info for Decision Support Systems 31 405-428 A flexible knowledge discovery system using genetic programming and logic grammars
More to the point for the present analysis, all select from a range of possible types of cause. This range is what I call the potential causal space, or space of potential causes, and it can be displayed in a grid, as in Fig. 1. Genotype 1 Genotype 2 [allele pairs] [whole genome] Intrauterine Physiology environment [hormone secretory patterns; neurotransmitter metabolism] Anatomy [brain structure] Non-shared environment [birth order; differential parental attention; peers] Shared (intra-family) environment Socio-Economic Status [parental income; level [parental attitudes re of education; discipline; race/ethnicity] communication styles; abusive/nonabusive] Fig.
This essay will attempt to resolve this paradox, to understand how human genomics can fill libraries with “results” that nevertheless seem to fail to make progress toward the goals they were designed to reach. 2 Background Genome wide association studies cannot be understood without seeing them in the historical context of behavioral genetics, which has its origins in the practical science of animal breeding. People have been breeding animals for complex characteristics, including behavioral ones, for thousands of years.
The environment is distinguishable into shared and non-shared environment, thus accounting for variation accounted for neither by genetic factors or by shared environmental factors. These assumptions mean that the causal space open to investigation by the methods of classical behavior genetics takes the form of Fig. 2: Intrauterine Physiology environment [hormone [allele pairs] [whole genome] secretory patterns; neurotransmitter metabolism] Genotype 1 Genotype 2 Non-shared environment [birth order; differential parental attention; peers] Anatomy [brain structure] Shared (intra-family) Socio-Economic Status environment [parental income; level [parental attitudes of education; re discipline; race/ethnicity] communication styles; abusive/nonabusive] Diagonal lines = active space (although in principle could include features of shared (intra-family) environment, in practice these are not taken into account or are subsumed under the SES categories) Solid black = inactive space (empty: either randomly distributed or effect of genotype) Fig.
Decision Support Systems 31 405-428 A flexible knowledge discovery system using genetic programming and logic grammars by Man Leung Wong