By Jonathan J. Scragg
Jonathan Scragg files his paintings on a truly promising fabric appropriate to be used in sun cells. Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide (CZTS) is a cost-efficient, earth-abundant fabric compatible for big scale deployment in photovoltaics. Jonathan pioneered and optimized a cost-effective path to this fabric concerning electroplating of the 3 metals involved, by way of swift thermal processing (RTP) in sulfur vapour. His fantastically special RTP reviews – mixed with recommendations reminiscent of XRD, EDX and Raman – display the advanced relationships among composition, processing and photovoltaic functionality. This unparalleled thesis contributes to the improvement of unpolluted, sustainable and replacement assets of energy
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Additional info for Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Thin Films for Photovoltaics: Synthesis and Characterisation by Electrochemical Methods
5. The addition of Empigen BB also reduced the rate of electrodeposition, as a consequence of blocking up surface sites, so the quantity added to the electrolyte was kept as low as possible to achieve smooth films with a reasonable deposition rate. 197 V vs. NHE. All potentials in the following discussion are given with respect to Ag|AgCl. 34 2 Electrodeposition of Metallic Precursors Fig. 1 Substrates Since Sn forms the second layer in the precursor, the substrate should now be a Cu-coated Mo electrode.
After cutting to the desired size, the substrates were cleaned by sonication for 5 min in, sequentially, detergent (5 vol% decon-90), ethanol and isopropanol. Where noted, a Pt substrate was used, which consisted of a 3 mm diameter Pt rod embedded in a plastic sheath and polished back to present a clean surface for electrochemical studies. 2 Electrolytes The electrolytes used for electrodepositions and electrochemical studies were prepared fresh on the day of use. The solutions were prepared from distilled or milliQ water by adding first the background electrolyte and/or pH-modifying agent, followed by the complexing agent (if used), then the metal salt and finally any other additives.
Both effects are illustrated in Fig. 8. Microscopic uniformity (morphology) is primarily controlled by the electrolyte composition and deposition potential. Macroscopic uniformity will depend on the configuration of the electrodeposition cell and mass transport. We will now briefly discuss the control of these factors in electrodeposition. 2 Morphological Control in Electrodeposition The growth mechanisms of electrodeposited films can be very complex. Briefly, we can either have ‘two-dimensional’ growth, where the film grows by successive nucleation of atomic layers, giving a rather flat surface, or we can have ‘threedimensional’ growth, wherein material is preferentially deposited at projecting surfaces, or nucleation is faster upon the deposited material rather than the substrate.
Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Thin Films for Photovoltaics: Synthesis and Characterisation by Electrochemical Methods by Jonathan J. Scragg
Categories: Solid State Physics