By Ryen Caenn, HCH Darley, George R. Gray
Composition and homes of Drilling and finishing touch Fluids, 5th variation, covers the basic rules of geology, chemistry, and physics that supply the clinical foundation for drilling fluids technology.New fabric for drilling, logging, and creation supervisors and engineers exlains how the alternative of a drilling fluid and correct upkeep can profoundly lessen overall good expenditures. It additionally defines technical phrases essential to the knowledge of directions and knowledge supplied by means of the dust engineer. up to date chapters speak about assessment of drilling fluid functionality, clay mineralogy and colloid chemistry, rheology, filtration homes, gap balance, drilling difficulties, and finishing touch fluids.
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Extra info for Composition and Properties of Drilling and Completion Fluids
Lower margins can be carried if the viscosity and gel strengths are kept to a minimum so as to avoid swabbing the well when pulling pipe, and to facilitate the removal of entrained gas. Because of the presence of barite the initial solids content of a weighted mud is high, and the incorporation of drilled solids soon increases it to the point where the viscosity rises rapidly. 68 SG) are required, a mud that tolerates a high solids content, such as one of the inhibitive muds discussed above, or an oil base mud, should be used.
The CL-CLS is the most popular of the group because it is easy to maintain and is the most stable at high temperatures, but it is also the most expensive because of the high concentration of CLS required. Also, it tends to destabilize shale formations. 32'33-34 Laboratory and field tests indicate much less dispersion of clays with these muds compared to conventional inhibitive muds. Table 1-3 Selection of the Drilling Fluid Classification Principal Ingredients Characteristics GA& Dry Air Dry Air Fast drilling in dry, hard rock No water influx Dust Mist Air, water or mud Wet formations but little water influx High annular velocity Foam Air, water, foaming agent Stable rock Moderate water flow tolerated Stable Foam Air, water containing polymers and/or bentonite; foaming agent All "reduced-pressure" conditions: Large volumes of water, big cuttings removed at low annular velocity Select polymer and foaming agent to afford hole stability and tolerate salts Foam can be formed at surface WA TER: Fresh Fresh Water Fast drilling in stable formations Need large settling area, flocculants, or ample water supply and easy disposal Salt Sea Water Brines for density increase and lower freezing point Limited to low-permeability rocks Low Solids Muds* Fresh water, polymer, bentonite Fast drilling in competent rocks Mechanical solids removal equipment needed Contaminated by cement, soluble salts NOTES: Detergents, lubricants, and/or corrosion inhibitors may be added to any water composition.
Ayers, R. , Sauer, T. , and Anderson, R. W, "The Generic Mud Concept for NPDES Permitting of Offshore Drilling Discharges," J. Petrol. Technol. (March, 1985). pp. 475-480. 23. Hinds, A. A. and Clements, W. , "New Mud Passes Environmental Tests," SPE paper 11113, Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Sept. 1982. 24. Boyd, P. , Whitfill, D. , Carter, D. , and Allamon, J. , "New Base Oil Used in Low-Toxicity Oil Muds," SPE paper 12119, Annual Meeting, San Francisco, Oct. 1983; and/. Petrol. Technol. (Jan. 1985) pp.
Composition and Properties of Drilling and Completion Fluids by Ryen Caenn, HCH Darley, George R. Gray