By Jack W Reed; SANDIA CORP ALBUQUERQUE NM
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Quite often, mass mortality of livestock is observed. The average annual mortality and economic losses due to earthquakes can be estimated at 15,000 people and US$20–30 billion (Govorushko 2009a). 5. 2 Volcanic Eruptions Like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions are frequent newsmakers. All together, about 2,500 volcanoes exist on Earth; during the last 3,500 years, only about 959 volcanoes (including 811 on land and 148 under water) have erupted (Guschenko 1983). About 360 million people live in dangerous proximity to active volcanoes.
Long-term pingos appear in the course of frost penetration into thawed grounds, usually below lakes, should the lake grow shallow or completely dry up. The largest pingos reach 50 m high and 600 m in diameter. 17 Mounds of heaving ground do not have considerable impacts on humans since the lands where they occur are usually sparsely inhabited and poorly developed. OBODY WAS INJURED To prevent such collapses, houses must be built on piles. Thereby, the air space under the house should prevent the heat impact on the frozen ground.
Under the action of the forces of frost ground heaving on a foundation, secondary stresses arise in the bearing members of the structure and result in deformations; these deformations can disturb the normal operation of the building or make it unusable. Deformations can cause the formation of cracks in foundations, ceilings, ﬂoors, and walls and skewing of door and window openings. These deformations have a cyclic, seasonal nature and repeat every year. During the spring melting of swelling ground, water permeability and compressibility increase, while the carrying capacity decreases, which results in differential settlement of a building.
Climatology of Airblast Propagations from Nevada Test Site Nuclear Airbursts by Jack W Reed; SANDIA CORP ALBUQUERQUE NM