By Bart Geerts, Edward Linacre
Climates and climate defined integrates climatology and meteorology to give a finished advent to the research of the ambience. transparent factors of uncomplicated ideas, thoughts and tactics are supported by means of a wealth of hugely informative illustrations and an array of case reports. The authors of this leading edge textbook/CD package deal provide necessary new insights into topical environmental matters together with weather swap, worldwide warming, dangers, sustainable inhabitants, environmental degradation, agriculture and drought. delivering assets for functional paintings and extra complicated research, the CD-ROM beneficial properties: over a hundred and seventy additional medical "Notes", with 60 extra illustrations and tables; interactive numerical, a number of selection and useful routines and self-assessment checks; prolonged courses to extra examining; prolonged thesaurus; educating feedback and courses; hypertext presentation and broad cross-referencing; transparent navigation, print-out and obtain ideas.
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So the Earth appears about four times brighter than the Moon when viewed from space. 15. The slight maximum at the equator is due to the cloudiness there. m. m. on eight days in January and February 1985. 4), so that only around 6 per cent of the Sun’s radiation reaching the ground is ultra-violet radiation (UV), instead of 9 per cent at the top of the atmosphere. e. e. 32 µm) and even shorter wavelength UV-C (sometimes called ‘vacuum’ or ‘far’ UV). The last penetrates in negligible amount down to sea-level; it is a hazard only on high mountains.
In other words, blue light (with a relatively short wavelength) is scattered ten times more than red light. 10). But on the Moon, where there is no atmosphere, the consequent absence of Rayleigh scattering makes the sky always black, even in sunshine. Back on Earth, blue light in solar radiation is notably scattered away by air pollution or fine dust, which makes the remaining direct sunlight seem red, especially when the Sun is low and the ray’s path through the atmosphere is long (Chapter 15).
This contains all the Earth’s mountains, about 80 per cent of the atmosphere and virtually all the water vapour. L gives characteristic values of the temperature, pressure and density at various levels of the troposphere. Within the troposphere but close to the ground is the planetary boundary layer (PBL), also called the ‘Ekman layer’ or ‘mixed layer’, in which the air is well mixed by heating (Chapter 3) and surface roughness (Chapter 14). Typically, the PBL is about 1 km thick, according to wind speed and solar radiation (Chapter 2), but may be less than 100 m on a still, cold, night.
Climates and Weather Explained by Bart Geerts, Edward Linacre