By Henry F. Diaz
Glaciers within the Andes are fairly vital usual documents of current and earlier climatic and environmental adjustments, in major half as a result N-S development of this topographic barrier and its impact at the atmospheric movement of the southern hemisphere. robust gradients within the seasonality and volume of precipitation exist among the equator and 30° S. huge ameliorations in quantity east and west of the Andean divide additionally ensue, in addition to a transformation from tropical summer season precipitation (additionally changed via the seasonal shift of the flow belts) to wintry weather precipitation within the west wind belt (e. g. , Yuille, 1999; Garraud and Aceituno, 2001). The so-called 'dry axis' lies among the tropical and additional tropical precipitation regimes (Figure 1). The excessive mountain wasteland inside of this axis responds such a lot sensitively to the smallest alterations in potent moisture. an enormous hydro-meteorological characteristic on a seasonal to inter-annual time-scale is the incidence of EN SO occasions, which strongly keep an eye on the mass stability of glaciers during this quarter (e. g. , Wagnon et ai. , 2001; Francou et ai. , in press). The precipitation development is a vital issue for the translation of climatic and environmental documents extracted from ice cores, simply because a lot of this data is said to stipulations on the real time of precipitation, and this is often in particular so for good isotope documents. a number of ice cores have lately been drilled to bedrock during this quarter. From Huascanin (Thompson et ai. , 1995), Sajama (Thompson et ai.
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Dukes, J. S. and Mooney, H. ', Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14,135-139. Epstein, P. , Diaz, H. : 1998, 'Biological and Physical Signs of Climate Change. Focus on Mosquito-Borne Diseases', Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 78,410-417. Fitzharris, B. , Braithwaite, R. , Kotlyakov, V. , Prowse, T. , Rinaldi, C. , Woo, M. , and Youyu Xie: 1996, 'The Cryosphere: Changes and their Impacts', in Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Chapter 5, Cambridge University Press, pp.
D. and Cayan, D. : 1995, 'Large-scale Atmospheric Forcing of Recent Trends toward Early Snowmelt Runoff in California', J. Climate 8, 606-623. Dukes, J. S. and Mooney, H. ', Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14,135-139. Epstein, P. , Diaz, H. : 1998, 'Biological and Physical Signs of Climate Change. Focus on Mosquito-Borne Diseases', Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 78,410-417. Fitzharris, B. , Braithwaite, R. , Kotlyakov, V. , Prowse, T. , Rinaldi, C. , Woo, M. , and Youyu Xie: 1996, 'The Cryosphere: Changes and their Impacts', in Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Chapter 5, Cambridge University Press, pp.
40000 E 45 Jan Feb War Apr Way - 3000 -4000 Jun Jul Aug Sep - 5000 Oct Nov Dec Month >.. £ Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Month ·········30N - 30S -----Global -·_·-N H ----SH Figure 6. Change in surface area above the FLS over the period (1958-2000) by month for the Tropics (30° N-300 S), Northern (0-70° N), and Southern Hemisphere (0-50° S) (,Global curve, 50° S-700 N, excludes Greenland and Antarctica). Trends in the top panel are in units of square-kilometers per year, with mean annual changes denoted by a large solid square for the Northern Hemisphere, and a large solid dot for the Southern Hemisphere.
Climate Variability and Change in High Elevation Regions: Past, Present & Future by Henry F. Diaz