Climate Changes during the Holocene and their Impact on - download pdf or read online

By Arie S. Issar

ISBN-10: 0521817269

ISBN-13: 9780521817264

It really is now commonly approved that expanding concentrations of greenhouse gases within the surroundings are inflicting better worldwide temperatures. This quantity presents a complete assessment of the results of weather variability on hydrological and human structures within the Holocene (the final 10,000 years). The booklet concentrates at the areas bordering the Mediterranean Sea, western and significant Europe, China, Japan, West and South Africa and southwestern U.S.A. it's meant for researchers and pros in hydrology, climatology, geology and old geography.

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Additional info for Climate Changes during the Holocene and their Impact on Hydrological Systems

Sample text

As noted, the isotopic evidence supports this conclusion. The magnificent Chalcolithic culture, with its artistic tradition and technical knowledge, lasted for about 1300 years and suddenly disappeared towards 5 ka BP. All the sites were abandoned without any signs of violence. Archaeologists explain the disappearance of the Chalcolithic culture in various ways. Hennessy (1982) suggests that they had to leave their settlements because of a migration of a new wave of people – the ones who established the EB culture.

The settlers in the Beer-Sheva plain built their dwellings underground, digging into the loess soil in the escarpment overlooking the riverbed (Perrot, 1968). The people most probably received their water supply from shallow wells located in the riverbed. It is even possible that the river flowed during most of the year. There are many indications that the people cultivated fields along the riverbeds. Diversion dams were also used in order to bring water from the river to the fields (Alon, 1988). Consequently, one cannot avoid the conclusion that, indeed, the Chalcolithic period was one of economic and cultural prosperity, and the most logical reason for this is a climatic change that brought more precipitation to the semi-arid Middle East and enabled agriculture to spread into the desert area.

Ben Tor (1992) noted that ceramics from the EB, especially those belonging to the first stage of the EB I, were not totally different from those of the Chalcolithic period. In fact, there seems to be a sequence in traditions, which might also support the possibility of a continuation in the population. Considering new evidence collected since the early 1980s, there is a tendency to explain the social processes leading to urbanization as an evolutionary conceptual rather than an intrusion: diffusion model (Ben Tor, 1992; Amiran and Kochavi, 1985).

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Climate Changes during the Holocene and their Impact on Hydrological Systems by Arie S. Issar


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