Read e-book online Climate and Catastrophe in Cuba and the Atlantic World in PDF

By Sherry Johnson

ISBN-10: 0807834939

ISBN-13: 9780807834930

From 1750 to 1800, a severe interval that observed the yankee Revolution, French Revolution, and Haitian Revolution, the Atlantic global skilled a chain of environmental crises, together with extra common and critical hurricanes and prolonged drought. Drawing on ancient climatology, environmental background, and Cuban and American colonial heritage, Sherry Johnson innovatively integrates the region's adventure with severe climate occasions and styles into the heritage of the Spanish Caribbean and the Atlantic world.By superimposing this heritage of typical mess ups over the traditional timeline of sociopolitical and monetary occasions in Caribbean colonial heritage, Johnson offers an alternate research within which a number of the sign occasions of the Age of Revolution are noticeable as outcomes of ecological drawback and of the ensuing measures for catastrophe reduction. for instance, Johnson reveals that the overall adoption in 1778 of unfastened alternate within the Americas was once catalyzed through popularity of the cruel realities of foodstuff shortage and the desires of neighborhood colonists reeling from a sequence of traditional failures. Weather-induced environmental crises and sluggish responses from imperial experts, Johnson argues, performed an inextricable and, formerly, principally unacknowledged position within the upward thrust of progressive sentiments within the eighteenth-century Caribbean.

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Extra resources for Climate and Catastrophe in Cuba and the Atlantic World in the Age of Revolution (Envisioning Cuba)

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Chapter 4 examines in detail one of the most active hurricane seasons, in fall 1772, when nine major systems made landfall throughout the Caribbean. It posits the hypothesis 20 • c u r s e d b y n at u r e that universal scarcity called for desperate measures and forced the Spanish government to trade with North America, which, in turn offered an alternate market for the Patriots’ products. This theme, elaborated and expanded upon in chapter 5, examines the war years from 1776 through victory in 1783, the significance of the Reglamento para el comercio libre on trade relations between the insurgent colonies and Cuba in 1778, and the subsequent expulsion of North American traders in 1784.

8 The always-perilous ocean passage proved even more dangerous the following year when another mid-Atlantic hurricane struck Spanish shipping. Like the notices of Espinola’s fleet, the news was carried to Havana by a vessel in the coastal trade under the command of Captain Ignacio de Anaya. This time the notices were not joyful. In late July, Anaya left Havana for Campeche and Veracruz, where he loaded flour and other provisions. On his return voyage, sailing along the north coast of Cuba, Anaya was within sight of El Morro, the fortress that guarded the entry to Havana bay, but contrary winds and currents prevented him from making port.

In summer 1752, a small sailboat captained by Juan Diáz de Paz was making its way to Trinidad from Jamaica. Diáz de Paz had received a passport from the Spanish consul in Kingston to travel to Cuba because his wife wanted to convert to Catholi- be content with things • 37 cism. As the boat approached the Cuban coastline, Diáz de Paz and his crew observed illicit activity on Cabo Cruz involving some of the area’s leading citizens. According to Diáz de Paz, Juan Garvey, Joseph Saravía, Pedro Carrión, and Baltasar Pérez were openly unloading bales and chests onto the beach, unconcerned that their smuggling operation had been discovered.

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Climate and Catastrophe in Cuba and the Atlantic World in the Age of Revolution (Envisioning Cuba) by Sherry Johnson


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