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Extra resources for Chemical Engineering. Essentials of Process Control
2. Variables: a. Manipulated variables: Typically flow rates of streams entering or leaving a process that we can change to control the plant. b. Controlled variables: Flow rates, compositions, temperatures, levels, and pressures in the process that we will try to control, either trying to hold them as constant as possible or trying to make them follow some desired time trajectory. c. Uncontrolled variables: Variables in the process that are not controlled. d. Load disturbances: Flow rates, temperatures, or compositions of streams entering (but sometimes leaving) the process.
_ . :. i 180 200 .............. : ...... :i 10 i 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Time (min) I I I 140 160 180 200 I I I I I I I I . ;. ;. :. . ;. ;. ;. ;. . ;. _ ; ; ; ; ; 1 f . ii I::::::::! I... j . . . . f . . . . i . . . : . . . . : . . . . :. . . . : . . . 7 Level control of two tanks in series using P controllers. abwrrx I: Introduction 1 I at time equal zero. 3 gives the “m-file” used. If you do not already have some exposure to programming in MATLAB, you can pick up the essentials pretty quickly.
The time constant and the damping coefficient for the system are The roots of the characteristic equation are obvious from Eq. 74), but the use of Eq. 68) gives + L ,=-&- A”-1 = -52-2 70 70 St = -2 s2 = - 3 The two roots are real, and the complementary solution is XC = cte -21 + c2e-31 The values of the constant cl and c2 depend on the initial conditions.
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