Cartesian Logic - download pdf or read online

By Stephen Gaukroger

ISBN-10: 0198248253

ISBN-13: 9780198248255

This ebook bargains with a formerly missed episode within the heritage of good judgment and theories of cognition: the way conceptions of inference replaced through the seventeenth century. Gaukroger makes a speciality of the paintings of Descartes, contrasting his rationalization of inference as an immediate clutch in accord with the usual mild of cause with the Aristotelian view of inference as a discursive method. He bargains a brand new interpretation of Descartes' contribution to the query, revealing it to be an important enhance over humanist and overdue Scholastic conceptions, and argues that the Cartesian account performed a pivotal position within the improvement of our knowing of the character of inference.

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Example text

Referring to nouns as "names" and verbs as "predicates,'' Geach claims (48), "It is logically impossible for a term to shift about between subject and predicate position without undergoing a change of sense as well as a change of role. " Geach is defending the view most commonly held nowadays by logicians, according to which there are two quite distinct roles to be played by terms: referential and predicative. 2 In Prior Analytics, the referentiaVpredicative distinction, a semantic distinction that even Aristotle could not deny, is not reflected in a syntactical distinction, and it is this failure that seems most to exercise Geach.

The subject-term of a particular sentence is said to have determinate supposition; all other terms are said to have confused supposition. Terms with confused supposition consist of predicate-terms of aft"mnations, said to have pure supposition, and subject-terms of universals as well as the predicate-terms of negations, said to have distributive supposition. As it turns out, singular terms (those with discrete supposition) and terms with distributed supposition are logically distributed terms. The 17 CHAPTER I rest, those with detenninate or pure supposition, are logically undistributed tenns.

The true logical work of a statement was determined by the expression connecting the two terms. I said above that Aristotle's recognition of two kinds of negation was a crucial element for his syllogistic. In the next chapter, we will see that modem logicians generally take all logical negation to apply to entire statements and never to terms alone. In other words, for modem logicians, generally speaking, all negation is sentential, never terminal. Yet Aristotle, and indeed virtually all logicians before Frege, recognized two kinds of negation.

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Cartesian Logic by Stephen Gaukroger


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