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Extra resources for Biochemistry and Genetics Pretest Self-Assessment and Review
Alterations in DNA sequence or its expression produce genetic disease. • Three major RNA polymerases in eukaryotic cells transcribe product RNAs as summarized in Table 6. Primary transcription of heterogenous (Hn) RNA is followed by RNA processing, involving RNA splicing to remove introns, 7-methyl-guanine capping on the 5′-end, polyadenylation to add approximately 200 adenosines at the 3′-end, and transport to the cytoplasm, yielding a contiguous mRNA template for protein translation (Fig. 16A).
Long-chain acyl-CoA is cycled through reactions 2 through 5, and one acetyl-CoA moiety is removed with each cycle. (Reproduced, with permission, from Murray RK, Bender DA, Botham KM, et al. Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry. 29th ed. ) 23 24 TABLE 4. 21 (sometimes called VHDL). (Modified, with permission, from Murray RK, Bender DA, Botham KM, et al. Harper’s Biochemistry. 29th ed. ) High-Yield Facts in Biochemistry and Genetics 25 • • • • • • Table 4. Chylomicrons transport fats from the intestine to other tissues, and HDL transports cholesterol from the periphery back to the liver.
18). Corollary: Haldane law predicts a two-third chance that the mother of an affected male with X-linked recessive disease is a carrier (and a one-third chance the affected male represents a new mutation). Key concepts: Genetic and biochemical diagnosis (Lewis, pp 379-394. Scriver, pp 3-45. ) • Certain ethnic groups have higher frequencies of particular Mendelian disorders illustrated by cystic fibrosis in Caucasians, sickle cell anemia in African Americans, β-thalassemia in Italians and Greeks, α-thalassemia in Asians, and Tay-Sachs disease in Ashkenazi Jews.
Biochemistry and Genetics Pretest Self-Assessment and Review by Golder Wilson