By Golder Wilson
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D. e. f. g. qxd 11/14/01 10:37 AM Page 43 Gene Expression 43 54. What is the correct order of the following steps in protein synthesis? 1. A peptide bond is formed. 2. The small ribosomal subunit is loaded with initiation factors, messenger RNA, and initiation aminoacyl–transfer RNA. 3. The intact ribosome slides forward three bases to read a new codon. 4. The primed small ribosomal subunit binds with the large ribosomal subunit. 5. Elongation factors deliver aminoacyl-tRNA to bind to the A site.
Nucleotide insertions or deletions other than multiples of 3 alter the reading frame of the code and scramble the amino acid sequence distal to the frame-shift mutation. Such altered mRNAs may be of increased or smaller size, depending on their stability, as may the translated protein, depending on the presence of stop codons within the shifted reading frame. Only the protein upstream of the frame-shift mutation retains immune cross-reactivity and normal function.
Scriver, pp 3–45. Sack, pp 1–40. ) Splice junction mutations will theoretically produce a larger mRNA unless the mRNA is unstable; the larger protein may have abnormal function but retain peptide regions that react with antibody to the authentic protein. Nucleotide insertions or deletions other than multiples of 3 alter the reading frame of the code and scramble the amino acid sequence distal to the frame-shift mutation. Such altered mRNAs may be of increased or smaller size, depending on their stability, as may the translated protein, depending on the presence of stop codons within the shifted reading frame.
Biochemisrty & Genetics by Golder Wilson