By Peter V. Hobbs
Up to date and revised, this hugely winning textual content info the fundamental chemical ideas required for contemporary experiences of atmospheres, oceans, and Earth and planetary platforms. This thoroughly obtainable advent permits undergraduate and graduate scholars with little formal education in chemistry to understand such primary suggestions as chemical equilibria, chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, resolution chemistry, acid and base chemistry, oxidation-reduction reactions, and photochemistry. within the spouse quantity advent to Atmospheric Chemistry (also to be released in might 2000), Peter Hobbs info atmospheric chemistry itself, together with its functions to pollution, acid rain, the ozone gap, and weather swap. jointly those books provide a great creation to atmospheric chemistry for a number of disciplines.
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Extra info for Basic physical chemistry for the atmospheric sciences
Therefore, - kr k = Kc (3 . 8) r which is the required re l atio n ship for an e l ementary proc ess In the cas e of a chemical reaction that proceeds by a multistep process, eac h elementary process must be in equilibrium if Eq . 8) is to be applied to each step . Thi s is called th e principle of detailed balancing; it permits a re l at io ns hi p to be derived between the rate coefficients for the elementary processes and the equilibrium c on s tant for the o ve rall reacti on 2 Exercise 3 .
However, these criteria are dif ficul t to ap p ly in p ractice because they involve the system and its surround ings , rather than the system alone. To develop criteria for equilibrium and spontaneous transformations that involve only the system , we introduce a new function of state , called the Gibbs free energy (G, or g for unit mass) which is defined by 28 Basic physical chemistry g = h - Ts (2 . 25) g = u + pa - Ts (2. 26) or, using Eq. 8), Differentiating Eqs . 25) and (2 . 27) If we now confine ourselves to transformations at constant tempera ture and pressure (which are common conditions for chemical reac tions) dg = dh - Tds = du + pda - Tds or, using Eq.
Hint: Use the result from E xercise 2. 1 8 . ) Notes If the internal energy o f a gas depend s on its temperat u re only (and not its volume ) , it i s said t o obey Joule 's law . One o f t h e requirements of an ideal gas i s that it ob e y Joule ' s law. 2 Note t ha t the standard temperature is defined as 0°C (see Section I . I), but standard states are defined at a temperature of 25°C (or 298 K). 3 Although one atmosphere (I aim) is not t he SI unit o f press ure , it does not mat ter here because the pressures in Eq.
Basic physical chemistry for the atmospheric sciences by Peter V. Hobbs