By Masaki Satoh
This booklet describes the tools used to build normal flow versions (GCMs) of the ambience, and the way such versions practice in functions on the subject of the genuine weather and environmental structures. half 1 summarizes the actual procedures concerned; half 2 covers atmospheric constructions; half three outlines uncomplicated steps for developing GCMs. comprises an appendix with simple facts and mathematical formulae to allow readers to build GCMs for themselves.
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A typical progression is to move from an approach based primarily on monitoring river levels to one which also uses rainfall observations and forecasts and flood forecasting models, and covers a wider range of types of flash flood. Often this includes the introduction of performance monitoring, post-event reporting and service level agreements as part of a long-term strategy for improvements • Community-based systems are widely used in flash flood prone areas to complement regional and national systems.
6). However due to the uncertainties involved, and the possibility of power, gauge and other failures, these types of systems tend to be used less frequently, and not at all in some countries, since generally the view is that some expert review and interpretation is needed before a warning is issued. However, this approach is sometimes useful where the consequences of false alarms or equipment malfunctions can be tolerated, such as with the use of flashing lights and automatic barriers at low water crossings on roads (see Chap.
6). In some cases, warnings are issued directly to all those likely to be affected, or instead through an intermediary such as the emergency services. Some flood warning services also have responsibilities for assisting in the emergency response, such as with evacuating properties, flood fighting and helping to protect critical assets. These activities are often performed by regional or local offices, with the national centre providing longer-range forecasts and technical and strategic support.
Atmospheric Circulation Dynamics and Circulation Models by Masaki Satoh