Download e-book for iPad: API STD 521 Guide for Pressure-relieving and Depressuring by American Petroleum Institute

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Extra info for API STD 521 Guide for Pressure-relieving and Depressuring Systems Petroleum petrochemical and natural gas industries—Pressurerelieving and depressuring systems

Sample text

Although smaller equipment can come with a degree of inherent mechanical strength against vacuum, provision of vacuum design for larger equipment can require additional metal thickness or the provision of vacuum support rings. The latter introduce potential corrosion problems unless suitable provision is made for liquid to drain from the rings and the drain holes are kept clear. g. vessel draining and steam-out) and activities such as hydrotesting. However, they are not a foolproof form of protection and designers and operators should agree where procedures can safely be relied upon.

If the low-pressure side has a large vapour volume, it can prove worthwhile to take credit for the following: The transfer of vapours from the high-pressure system needed to raise the pressure on the downstream side from operating pressure to relieving pressure (normally 110 % of design pressure or MAWP) lowers the upstream pressure. This decrease produces a corresponding reduction in the flow that establishes the relieving requirement. Where such credit is taken, an allowance shall be made for the normal makeup of vapour to the high-pressure system that tends to maintain upstream pressure.

Vessel draining and steam-out) and activities such as hydrotesting. However, they are not a foolproof form of protection and designers and operators should agree where procedures can safely be relied upon. If a vacuum-relief device is used, it shall be rated at a pressure comparable to that of the protected equipment. An instrumented system or regulator (repressuring system) can be used to add gas to prevent the vacuum from exceeding a specified level. The choice of gas should be considered carefully: air, nitrogen and fuel gas are commonly used, but each introduces different factors of cost, potential product contamination and flammability.

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API STD 521 Guide for Pressure-relieving and Depressuring Systems Petroleum petrochemical and natural gas industries—Pressurerelieving and depressuring systems by American Petroleum Institute


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