Get Advanced pH Measurement and Control PDF

By Gregory K. McMillan

ISBN-10: 1934394432

ISBN-13: 9781934394434

This best-selling ebook presents a transparent, concise, and complete view of ways to pick, set up, and keep electrodes, keep watch over valves, and keep an eye on ideas for pH purposes severe for product and water caliber within the technique undefined. The e-book covers each element of process layout together with the blending and reagent piping requisites which are vital for a winning application.
The crucial recommendations are summarized as key insights and the simplest practices are awarded as principles of thumb in the course of the e-book. The rising power of dynamic on-line pH estimators is explored to make present pH measurements speedier and extra trustworthy. the most recent advancements in complex batch regulate, adaptive regulate, linear reagent call for keep watch over, and version predictive regulate are offered to lessen reagent intake and variability.
Этот бестселлер обеспечивает четкое, краткое, и полное представление о том, как выбрать, установить и поддерживать электроды, регулирующие клапаны и стратегию борьбы с измерением рН, решающее значение для качества продукта и воды в обрабатывающей промышленности. Книга охватывает все аспекты проектирования систем, в том числе и требования смешивания реагентов трубопроводов, которые важны для успешного применения. Важнейшие концепции можно резюмировать ключевые идеями и лучшими практиками, представленных в виде эмпирических правил на протяжении всей книги. Возникающие возможности динамического измерения рН изучены, чтобы сделать существующие измерения рН более быстрыми и надежными. Последние события в расширенный контроля, адаптивного управления, линейное управление подачи реагента и модели интеллектуального управления представлены для уменьшения расхода реагентов и изменчивости.

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Extra resources for Advanced pH Measurement and Control

Example text

A W Add carbon dioxide as a stream component and adjust the concentration to provide the buffering effect nonllally fO l/rld in plant water. For weak acids and bases wi th double and triple dissociations, Equa tions 2-4b and 2-4<:: are used, respectively, in place of Equa tion 2-4a in Equation 2-4h. Appendix F has a FORTRAN subro utine listing that finds the pH that satisfies the charge balance for i acids and bases w ith single, double, or triple dissociations by interval halving. The pK a and pK w coeffi cients and the solution density sho uld be correc ted for process temperature and composition.

Weak acids behave like strong acids at a high p H and weak bases behave like strong bases at a low pH . The contribution of each weak acid or weak base to the charge balance eq ua tion is represented by Equations 2-4a th rough 2-4c. Equa tion 2-4g shows the cha rge balance equa tion for strong acids and bases and Equation 2-4h shows th e cha rge ba lance equation for weak acids and bases. The last two terms in both eq ua tions are fo r the hydrogen and hydroxyl ion concentrations. N, (2-40) = (2-4b) (2-4<:) (2-4d) (2-4e) (2-41) For strong acids and bases, the adds and bascs are completely dissociated everywhere on the pH scale.

Equation 2-2c shows that the ion concentration multiplied by an ac tivity coefficient is equal to the ion activity. Activ ities are dimensionless. The activ ity coefficien t d ecreases from unity as the ion concentratio n increases from zero. In dilute solu tions, the ions a re far eno ugh apa rt that the interaction between ions is negligible. Ion activity d ecreases as ion interaction increases. The change in activity is grea ter for ions with a large number of charges. As the concentration increases, the activity for some ions goes through a minimum and then increases due to ions gro uping together.

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Advanced pH Measurement and Control by Gregory K. McMillan

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Categories: Industrial Engineering